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eqn, neqn, checkeq - typeset mathematics test

Synopsis

Description

Options

Operands

Eqn Language

Attributes

See Also

Bugs

eqn[-dxy] [-fn] [-pn] [-sn] [file]...

neqn[file]...

checkeq[file]...

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eqnandneqnare language processors to assist in describing equations.eqnis a preprocessor fortroff(1) and is intended for devices that can printtroff’s output.neqnis a preprocessor fornroff(1) and is intended for use with terminals. Usage is almost always:

example%eqn file ... | troffexample%neqn file ... | nroff

If no

files are specified,eqnandneqnread from the standard input. A line beginning with.EQmarks the start of an equation. The end of an equation is marked by a line beginning with.EN. Neither of these lines is altered, so they may be defined in macro packages to get centering, numbering, and so on. It is also possible to set two characters as ‘‘delimiters’’; subsequent text between delimiters is also treated aseqninput.

checkeqreports missing or unbalanced delimiters and.EQ/.ENpairs.

The following options are supported:

-dxySets equation delimiters set to charactersxandywith the command-line argument. The more common way to do this is withdelimxybetween.EQand.EN. The left and right delimiters may be identical. Delimiters are turned off bydelimoffappearing in the text. All text that is neither between delimiters nor between.EQand.ENis passed through untouched.

-fnChanges font tonglobally in the document. The font can also be changed globally in the body of the document by using thegfontndirective, wherenis the font specification.

-pnReduces subscripts and superscripts bynpoint sizes from the previous size. In the absence of the-poption, subscripts and superscripts are reduced by 3 point sizes from the previous size.

-snChanges point size tonglobally in the document. The point size can also be changed globally in the body of the document by using thegsizendirective, wherenis the point size.

The following operands are supported:

fileThe nroff or troff file processed byeqnorneqn.

The nroff version of this description depicts the output of

neqnto the terminal screen exactly asneqnis able to display it. To see an accurate depiction of the output, view the printed version of this page.

Tokens within

eqnare separated by braces, double quotes, tildes, circumflexes, SPACE, TAB, or NEWLINE characters. Braces {} are used for grouping. Generally speaking, anywhere a single character likexcould appear, a complicated construction enclosed in braces may be used instead. A tilde (~) represents a full SPACE in the output; a circumflex (^) half as much.

Subscripts and superscripts:

These are produced with the keywordssubandsup.

x sub imakesx_{i}

a sub i sup 2producesa_{i}^{2}

e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}gives e^(x^2+y^2)

Fractions:

Fractions are made withover.

a over byieldsa/b

Square Roots:

These are made withsqrt

1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}

results in 1 / sqrtax^{2}+bx+c

Limits:

The keywordsfromandtointroduce lower and upper limits on arbitrary things:

lim from {n-> inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i

makes

lim_{n->oo}sum_{0}^{n}x_{i}

Brackets and Braces:

Left and right brackets, braces, and the like, of the right height are made withleftandright.

left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1

produces [x^{2}+y^{2}/alpha] = 1

The

rightclause is optional. Legal characters afterleftandrightare braces, brackets, bars,candffor ceiling and floor, and""for nothing at all (useful for a right-side-only bracket).

Vertical piles:

Vertical piles of things are made withpile,lpile,cpile, andrpile.

pile {a above b above c}

produces

pileabc

There can be an arbitrary number of elements in a pile.

lpileleft-justifies,pileandcpilecenter, with different vertical spacing, andrpileright justifies.

Matrices:

Matrices are made withmatrix.

matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } }

produces matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above matrix (x_{i}y_{2}1 2 )

In addition, there is

rcolfor a right-justified column.

Diacritical marks:

Diacritical marks are made withdot,dotdot,hat,tilde,bar,vec,dyad, andunder.

x dot = f(t) bar

isx^{.}=f(t)^{–}

y dotdot bar ~=~ n under

isy^{..}^{–}=n_

x vec ~=~ y dyadisx^{–}=ydyad

Sizes and Fonts:

Sizes and font can be changed withsizenorsize±n,roman,italic,bold, andfontn. Size and fonts can be changed globally in a document bygsizenandgfontn, or by the command-line arguments-snand-fn.

Successive display arguments:

Successive display arguments can be lined up. Placemarkbefore the desired lineup point in the first equation; placelineupat the place that is to line up vertically in subsequent equations.

Shorthands:

Shorthands may be defined or existing keywords redefined withdefine:

definething%replacement%

Defines a new token calledthingwhich will be replaced byreplacementwhenever it appears thereafter. The%may be any character that does not occur inreplacement.

Keywords and Shorthands:

Keywords likesumintinfand shorthands like>=->and!=are recognized.

Greek letters:

Greek letters are spelled out in the desired case, as inalphaorGAMMA.

Mathematical words:

Mathematical words likesin,cos, andlogare made Roman automatically.

troff(1) four-character escapes like o (o) can be used anywhere. Strings enclosed in double quotes"..."are passed through untouched; this permits keywords to be entered as text, and can be used to communicate withtroffwhen all else fails.

See

attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

ATTRIBUTE TYPE ATTRIBUTE VALUE Availability SUNWdoc

nroff(1),tbl(1),troff(1),attributes(5),ms(5)

To embolden characters such as digits and parentheses, it is necessary to quote them, as in ‘

bold "12.3"’.

SunOS 5.11 | eqn (1) | 12 Jul 2002 |