MAN Solaris - priocntl (1)

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NAME

priocntl - display or set scheduling parameters of specified process(es)

CONTENTS

Synopsis
Description
Options
Usage
Examples
Exit Status
Attributes
See Also
Diagnostics

SYNOPSIS

priocntl -l

priocntl -d [-i idtype] [idlist]

priocntl -s [-c class] [class-specific options]
    [-i idtype] [idlist]

priocntl -e [-c class] [class-specific options] command
    [argument(s)]

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DESCRIPTION

The priocntl command displays or sets scheduling parameters of the specified process(es). It can also be used to display the current configuration information for the system’s process scheduler or execute a command with specified scheduling parameters.

Processes fall into distinct classes with a separate scheduling policy applied to each class. The process classes currently supported are the real-time class, time-sharing class, interactive class, fair-share class, and the fixed priority class. The characteristics of these classes and the class-specific options they accept are described below in the USAGE section under the headings Real-Time Class, Time-Sharing Class, Inter-Active Class, Fair-Share Class, and Fixed-Priority Class. With appropriate permissions, the priocntl command can change the class and other scheduling parameters associated with a running process.

In the default configuration, a runnable real-time process runs before any other process. Therefore, inappropriate use of real-time processes can have a dramatic negative impact on system performance.

If an idlist is present, it must appear last on the command line and the elements of the list must be separated by white space. If no idlist is present, an idtype argument of pid, ppid, pgid, sid, taskid, class, uid, gid, projid, or zoneid specifies the process ID, parent process ID, process group ID, session ID, task ID, class, user ID, group ID, project ID, or zone ID, respectively, of the priocntl command itself.

The command

priocntl -d [-i idtype] [idlist]

displays the class and class-specific scheduling parameters of the process(es) specified by idtype and idlist.

The command

priocntl -s [-c class] [class-specific options] \
    [-i idtype] [idlist]

sets the class and class-specific parameters of the specified processes to the values given on the command line. The -c class option specifies the class to be set. (The valid class arguments are RT for real-time, TS for time-sharing, IA for inter-active, FSS for fair-share, or FX for fixed-priority.)

The class-specific parameters to be set are specified by the class-specific options as explained under the appropriate heading below. If the -c class option is omitted, idtype and idlist must specify a set of processes which are all in the same class, otherwise an error results. If no class-specific options are specified, the process’s class-specific parameters are set to the default values for the class specified by -c class (or to the default parameter values for the process’s current class if the -c class option is also omitted).

In order to change the scheduling parameters of a process using priocntl the real or effective user ID (respectively, groupID) of the user invoking priocntl must match the real or effective user ID (respectively, groupID) of the receiving process or the effective user ID of the user must be super-user. These are the minimum permission requirements enforced for all classes. An individual class can impose additional permissions requirements when setting processes to that class or when setting class-specific scheduling parameters.

When idtype and idlist specify a set of processes, priocntl acts on the processes in the set in an implementation-specific order. If priocntl encounters an error for one or more of the target processes, it can or cannot continue through the set of processes, depending on the nature of the error.

If the error is related to permissions, priocntl prints an error message and then continues through the process set, resetting the parameters for all target processes for which the user has appropriate permissions. If priocntl encounters an error other than permissions, it does not continue through the process set but prints an error message and exits immediately.

A special sys scheduling class exists for the purpose of scheduling the execution of certain special system processes (such as the swapper process). It is not possible to change the class of any process to sys. In addition, any processes in the sys class that are included in the set of processes specified by idtype and idlist are disregarded by priocntl. For example, if idtype were uid, an idlist consisting of a zero would specify all processes with a UID of 0, except processes in the sys class and (if changing the parameters using the -s option) the init process.

The init process (process ID 1) is a special case. In order for the priocntl command to change the class or other scheduling parameters of the init process, idtype must be pid and idlist must be consist of only a 1. The init process can be assigned to any class configured on the system, but the time-sharing class is almost always the appropriate choice. Other choices can be highly undesirable; see the for more information.

The command

priocntl -e [-c class] [class-specific options] command \
    [argument...]

executes the specified command with the class and scheduling parameters specified on the command line (arguments are the arguments to the command). If the -c class option is omitted the command is run in the user’s current class.

OPTIONS

The following options are supported:

-c class

Specifies the class to be set. (The valid class arguments are RT for real-time, TS for time-sharing, IA for inter-active, FSS for fair-share, or FX for fixed-priority.) If the specified class is not already configured, it is automatically configured.

-d

Displays the scheduling parameters associated with a set of processes.

-e

Executes a specified command with the class and scheduling parameters associated with a set of processes.

-i idtype

This option, together with the idlist arguments (if any), specifies one or more processes to which the priocntl command is to apply. The interpretation of idlist depends on the value of idtype. If the -i idtype option is omitted when using the -d or -s options the default idtype of pid is assumed.

The valid idtype arguments and corresponding interpretations of idlist are as follows:

-i all

The priocntl command applies to all existing processes. No idlist should be specified (if one is specified, it is ignored). The permission restrictions described below still apply.

-i ctid

idlist is a list of process contract IDs. The priocntl command applies to all processes with a process contract ID equal to an ID from the list.

-i class

idlist consists of a single class name (RT for real-time, TS for time-sharing, IA for inter-active, FSS for fair-share, or FX for fixed-priority). The priocntl command applies to all processes in the specified class.

-i gid

idlist is a list of group IDs. The priocntl command applies to all processes with an effective group ID equal to an ID from the list.

-i pgid

idlist is a list of process group IDs. The priocntl command applies to all processes in the specified process groups.

-i pid

idlist is a list of process IDs. The priocntl command applies to the specified processes.

-i ppid

idlist is a list of parent process IDs. The priocntl command applies to all processes whose parent process ID is in the list.

-i projid

idlist is a list of project IDs. The priocntl command applies to all processes with an effective project ID equal to an ID from the list.

-i sid

idlist is a list of session IDs. The priocntl command applies to all processes in the specified sessions.

-i taskid

idlist is a list of task IDs. The priocntl command applies to all processes in the specified tasks.

-i uid

idlist is a list of user IDs. The priocntl command applies to all processes with an effective user ID equal to an ID from the list.

-i zoneid

idlist is a list of zone IDs. The priocntl command applies to all processes with an effective zone ID equal to an ID from the list.

-l

Displays a list of the classes currently configured in the system along with class-specific information about each class. The format of the class-specific information displayed is described under USAGE.

-s

Sets the scheduling parameters associated with a set of processes.

The valid class-specific options for setting real-time parameters are:

-p rtpri

Sets the real-time priority of the specified process(es) to rtpri.

-t tqntm [-r res]

Sets the time quantum of the specified process(es) to tqntm. You can optionally specify a resolution as explained below.

-q tqsig

Sets the real-time time quantum signal of the specified process(es) to tqsig.

The valid class-specific options for setting time-sharing parameters are:

-m tsuprilim

Sets the user priority limit of the specified process(es) to tsuprilim.

-p tsupri

Sets the user priority of the specified process(es) to tsupri.

The valid class-specific options for setting inter-active parameters are:

-m iauprilim

Sets the user priority limit of the specified process(es) to iauprilim.

-p iaupri

Sets the user priority of the specified process(es) to iaupri.

The valid class-specific options for setting fair-share parameters are:

-m fssuprilim

Sets the user priority limit of the specified process(es) to fssuprilim.

-p fssupri

Sets the user priority of the specified process(es) to fssupri.

The valid class-specific options for setting fixed-priority parameters are:

-m fxuprilim

Sets the user priority limit of the specified process(es) to fxuprilim.

-p fxupri

Sets the user priority of the specified process(es) to fxupri.

-t tqntm

[-r res] Sets the time quantum of the specified process(es) to tqntm. You can optionally specify a resolution as explained below.

USAGE

    Real-Time Class

The real-time class provides a fixed priority preemptive scheduling policy for those processes requiring fast and deterministic response and absolute user/application control of scheduling priorities. If the real-time class is configured in the system, it should have exclusive control of the highest range of scheduling priorities on the system. This ensures that a runnable real-time process is given CPU service before any process belonging to any other class.

The real-time class has a range of real-time priority (rtpri) values that can be assigned to processes within the class. Real-time priorities range from 0 to x, where the value of x is configurable and can be displayed for a specific installation that has already configured a real-time scheduler, by using the command

priocntl -l

The real-time scheduling policy is a fixed priority policy. The scheduling priority of a real-time process never changes except as the result of an explicit request by the user/application to change the rtpri value of the process.

For processes in the real-time class, the rtpri value is, for all practical purposes, equivalent to the scheduling priority of the process. The rtpri value completely determines the scheduling priority of a real-time process relative to other processes within its class. Numerically higher rtpri values represent higher priorities. Since the real-time class controls the highest range of scheduling priorities in the system, it is guaranteed that the runnable real-time process with the highest rtpri value is always selected to run before any other process in the system.

In addition to providing control over priority, priocntl provides for control over the length of the time quantum allotted to processes in the real-time class. The time quantum value specifies the maximum amount of time a process can run, assuming that it does not complete or enter a resource or event wait state (sleep). Notice that if another process becomes runnable at a higher priority, the currently running process can be preempted before receiving its full time quantum.

The command

priocntl -d [-i idtype] [idlist]

displays the real-time priority, time quantum (in millisecond resolution), and time quantum signal value for each real-time process in the set specified by idtype and idlist.

Any combination of the -p, -t [-r], and -q options can be used with priocntl -s or priocntl -e for the real-time class. If an option is omitted and the process is currently real-time, the associated parameter is unaffected. If an option is omitted when changing the class of a process to real-time from some other class, the associated parameter is set to a default value. The default value for rtpri is 0 and the default for time quantum is dependent on the value of rtpri and on the system configuration; see rt_dptbl(4).

When using the -t tqntm option, you can optionally specify a resolution using the -r res option. (If no resolution is specified, millisecond resolution is assumed.) If res is specified, it must be a positive integer between 1 and 1,000,000,000 inclusively and the resolution used is the reciprocal of res in seconds. For example, specifying -t 10 -r 100 would set the resolution to hundredths of a second and the resulting time quantum length would be 10/100 seconds (one tenth of a second). Although very fine (nanosecond) resolution can be specified, the time quantum length is rounded up by the system to the next integral multiple of the system clock’s resolution. Requests for time quantums of zero or quantums greater than the (typically very large) implementation-specific maximum quantum result in an error.

The real-time time quantum signal can be used to notify runaway real-time processes about the consumption of their time quantum. Those processes, which are monitored by the real-time time quantum signal, receive the configured signal in the event of time quantum expiration. The default value (0) of the time quantum signal tqsig denotes no signal delivery. A positive value denotes the delivery of the signal specified by the value. Like kill(1) and other commands operating on signals, the -q tqsig option is also able to handle symbolically named signals, like XCPU or KILL.

In order to change the class of a process to real-time (from any other class), the user invoking priocntl must have super-user privilege. In order to change the rtpri value or time quantum of a real-time process, the user invoking priocntl must either be super-user, or must currently be in the real-time class (shell running as a real-time process) with a real or effective user ID matching the real or effective user ID of the target process.

The real-time priority, time quantum, and time quantum signal are inherited across the fork(2) and exec(2) system calls. When using the time quantum signal with a user defined signal handler across the exec(2) system call, the new image must install an appropriate user defined signal handler before the time quantum expires. Otherwise, unpredicable behavior would result.

    Time-Sharing Class

The time-sharing scheduling policy provides for a fair and effective allocation of the CPU resource among processes with varying CPU consumption characteristics. The objectives of the time-sharing policy are to provide good response time to interactive processes and good throughput to CPU-bound jobs, while providing a degree of user/application control over scheduling.

The time-sharing class has a range of time-sharing user priority (tsupri) values that can be assigned to processes within the class. User priorities range from -x to +x, where the value of x is configurable. The range for a specific installation can be displayed by using the command

priocntl -l

The purpose of the user priority is to provide some degree of user/application control over the scheduling of processes in the time-sharing class. Raising or lowering the tsupri value of a process in the time-sharing class raises or lowers the scheduling priority of the process. It is not guaranteed, however, that a time-sharing process with a higher tsupri value runs before one with a lower tsupri value. This is because the tsupri value is just one factor used to determine the scheduling priority of a time-sharing process. The system can dynamically adjust the internal scheduling priority of a time-sharing process based on other factors such as recent CPU usage.

In addition to the system-wide limits on user priority (displayed with priocntl -l), there is a per process user priority limit (tsuprilim), which specifies the maximum tsupri value that can be set for a given process.

The command

priocntl -d [-i idtype] [idlist]

displays the user priority and user priority limit for each time-sharing process in the set specified by idtype and idlist.

Any time-sharing process can lower its own tsuprilim (or that of another process with the same user ID). Only a time-sharing process with super-user privilege can raise a tsuprilim. When changing the class of a process to time-sharing from some other class, super-user privilege is required in order to set the initial tsuprilim to a value greater than zero.

Any time-sharing process can set its own tsupri (or that of another process with the same user ID) to any value less than or equal to the process’s tsuprilim. Attempts to set the tsupri above the tsuprilim (and/or set the tsuprilim below the tsupri) result in the tsupri being set equal to the tsuprilim.

Any combination of the -m and -p options can be used with priocntl -s or priocntl -e for the time-sharing class. If an option is omitted and the process is currently time-sharing, the associated parameter is normally unaffected. The exception is when the -p option is omitted and -m is used to set a tsuprilim below the current tsupri. In this case, the tsupri is set equal to the tsuprilim which is being set. If an option is omitted when changing the class of a process to time-sharing from some other class, the associated parameter is set to a default value. The default value for tsuprilim is 0 and the default for tsupri is to set it equal to the tsuprilim value which is being set.

The time-sharing user priority and user priority limit are inherited across the fork(2) and exec(2) system calls.

    Inter-Active Class

The inter-active scheduling policy provides for a fair and effective allocation of the CPU resource among processes with varying CPU consumption characteristics while providing good responsiveness for user interaction. The objectives of the inter-active policy are to provide good response time to interactive processes and good throughput to CPU-bound jobs. The priorities of processes in the inter-active class can be changed in the same manner as those in the time-sharing class, though the modified priorities continue to be adjusted to provide good responsiveness for user interaction.

The inter-active user priority limit, iaupri, is equivalent to tsupri. The inter-active per process user priority, iauprilim, is equivalent to tsuprilim.

Inter-active class processes that have the iamode ("interactive mode") bit set are given a priority boost value of 10, which is factored into the user mode priority of the process when that calculation is made, that is, every time a process’s priority is adjusted. This feature is used by the X windowing system, which sets this bit for those processes that run inside of the current active window to give them a higher priority.

    Fair-Share Class

The fair-share scheduling policy provides a fair allocation of system CPU resources among projects, independent of the number of processes they own. Projects are given "shares" to control their entitlement to CPU resources. Resource usage is remembered over time, so that entitlement is reduced for heavy usage, and increased for light usage, with respect to other projects. CPU time is scheduled among processes according to their owner’s entitlements, independent of the number of processes each project owns.

The FSS scheduling class supports the notion of per-process user priority and user priority limit for compatibility with the time-share scheduler. The fair share scheduler attempts to provide an evenly graded effect across the whole range of user priorities. Processes with negative fssupri values receive time slices less frequently than normal, while processes with positive fssupri values receive time slices more frequently than normal. Notice that user priorities do not interfere with shares. That is, changing a fssupri value of a process is not going to affect its project’s overall CPU usage which only relates to the amount of shares it is allocated compared to other projects.

The priorities of processes in the fair-share class can be changed in the same manner as those in the time-share class.

    Fixed-Priority Class

The fixed-priority class provides a fixed priority preemptive scheduling policy for those processes requiring that the scheduling priorities do not get dynamically adjusted by the system and that the user/application have control of the scheduling priorities.

The fixed-priority class shares the same range of scheduling priorities with the time-sharing class, by default. The fixed-priority class has a range of fixed-priority user priority (fxupri) values that can be assigned to processes within the class. User priorities range from 0 to x, where the value of x is configurable. The range for a specific installation can be displayed by using the command

priocntl -l

The purpose of the user priority is to provide user/application control over the scheduling of processes in the fixed-priority class. For processes in the fixed-priority class, the fxupri value is, for all practical purposes, equivalent to the scheduling priority of the process. The fxupri value completely determines the scheduling priority of a fixed-priority process relative to other processes within its class. Numerically higher fxupri values represent higher priorities.

In addition to the system-wide limits on user priority (displayed with priocntl -l), there is a per process user priority limit (fxuprilim), which specifies the maximum fxupri value that can be set for a given process.

Any fixed-priority process can lower its own fxuprilim (or that of another process with the same user ID). Only a process with super-user privilege can raise a fxuprilim. When changing the class of a process to fixed-priority from some other class, super-user privilege is required in order to set the initial fxuprilim to a value greater than zero.

Any fixed-priority process can set its own fxupri (or that of another process with the same user ID) to any value less than or equal to the process’s fxuprilim. Attempts to set the fxupri above the fxuprilim (or set the fxuprilim below the fxupri) result in the fxupri being set equal to the fxuprilim.

In addition to providing control over priority, priocntl provides for control over the length of the time quantum allotted to processes in the fixed-priority class. The time quantum value specifies the maximum amount of time a process can run, before surrendering the CPU, assuming that it does not complete or enter a resource or event wait state (sleep). Notice that if another process becomes runnable at a higher priority, the currently running process can be preempted before receiving its full time quantum.

Any combination of the -m, -p, and -t options can be used with priocntl -s or priocntl -e for the fixed-priority class. If an option is omitted and the process is currently fixed-priority, the associated parameter is normally unaffected. The exception is when the -p option is omitted and the -m option is used to set a fxuprilim below the current fxupri. In this case, the fxupri is set equal to the fxuprilim which is being set. If an option is omitted when changing the class of a process to fixed-priority from some other class, the associated parameter is set to a default value. The default value for fxuprilim is 0. The default for fxupri is to set it equal to the fxuprilim value which is being set. The default for time quantum is dependent on the fxupri and on the system configuration. See fx_dptbl( 4).

The time quantum of processes in the fixed-priority class can be changed in the same manner as those in the real-time class.

The fixed-priority user priority, user priority limit, and time quantum are inherited across the fork(2) and exec(2) system calls.

EXAMPLES

The following are real-time class examples:

Example 1 Setting the Class

The following example sets the class of any non-real-time processes selected by idtype and idlist to real-time and sets their real-time priority to the default value of 0. The real-time priorities of any processes currently in the real-time class are unaffected. The time quantums of all of the specified processes are set to 1/10 seconds.

example% priocntl -s -c RT -t 1 -r 10 -i idtype idlist

Example 2 Executing a Command in Real-time

The following example executes command in the real-time class with a real-time priority of 15 and a time quantum of 20 milliseconds:

example% priocntl -e -c RT -p 15 -t 20 command

Example 3 Executing a Command in Real-time with a Specified Quantum Signal

The following example executes command in the real-time class with a real-time priority of 11, a time quantum of 250 milliseconds, and where the specified real-time quantum signal is SIGXCPU:

example% priocntl -e -c RT -p 11 -t 250 -q XCPU command

The following are time-sharing class examples:

Example 4 Setting the Class of non-time-sharing Processes

The following example sets the class of any non-time-sharing processes selected by idtype and idlist to time-sharing and sets both their user priority limit and user priority to 0. Processes already in the time-sharing class are unaffected.

example% priocntl -s -c TS -i idtype idlist

Example 5 Executing a Command in the Time-sharing Class

The following example executes command with the arguments arguments in the time-sharing class with a user priority limit of 0 and a user priority of -15:

example% priocntl -e -c TS -m 0 -p -15 command [arguments]

Example 6 Executing a Command in Fixed-Priority Class

The following example executes a command in the fixed-priority class with a user priority limit of 20 and user priority of 10 and time quantum of 250 milliseconds:

example% priocntl -e -c FX -m 20 -p 10 -t 250 command

EXIT STATUS

The following exit values are returned:

For options -d, -l, and -s:

0

Successful operation.

1

Error condition.

For option -e:

Return of the Exit Status of the executed command denotes successful operation. Otherwise,

1

Command could not be executed at the specified priority.

ATTRIBUTES

See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

ATTRIBUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE
AvailabilitySUNWcsu

SEE ALSO

kill(1), nice(1), ps(1), dispadmin(1M), exec(2), fork(2), priocntl(2), fx_dptbl(4), process(4), rt_dptbl(4), attributes(5), zones(5), FSS(7)

DIAGNOSTICS

priocntl prints the following error messages:

Process(es) not found

None of the specified processes exists.

Specified processes from different classes

The -s option is being used to set parameters, the -c class option is not present, and processes from more than one class are specified.

Invalid option or argument

An unrecognized or invalid option or option argument is used.

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SunOS 5.11 priocntl (1) 1 Apr 2008
Generated by Open Solaris Forum from /usr/share/man/man1/priocntl.1 using man macros with tbl support.